Bombay School - Our Best Always - Ake Runga - Years 0 to 8

What is the Number Framework?

The Number Framework is intended to help teachers, parents and students understand the stages of learning of number knowledge and understanding.

There are two sections to the Number Framework. The Strategy section describes the processes students use to solve problems involving numbers - how they work things out. The Knowledge section describes the key items about number that children know and can recall quickly.

The two sections are linked, with children requiring knowledge to improve their strategies, and using strategies to develop new knowledge.


The Strategy Section

The Strategy section of the Number Framework describes a series of stages that children progress through as they develop their understanding of a range of strategies for solving number problems. There are eight stages altogether, with the first three often grouped together:

  • Stage 0-3: Counting from One - children can solve problems by counting from one, either using materials or in their head.
  • Stage 4: Advanced Counting - children can solve problems by counting in ones, or by skip counting, starting from numbers other than one.
  • Stage 5: Early Additive - children can solve simple problems by splitting up and adding together the numbers in their head.
  • Stage 6: Advanced Additive - children use a range of different methods to solve more challenging problems in their head.
  • Stage 7: Advanced Multiplicative - children use a range of different methods to solve multiplication and division problems in their head.
  • Stage 8: Advanced Proportional - children can solve complicated problems involving fractions, decimals and percentages using a combination of methods.


There are three areas, or 'domains' within the Strategy section, which describe a child's ability to solve different types of problems (additive, multiplicative and proportional). Your child is likely to be learning a broad range of strategies in their classroom mathematics programme. One of the ways that you can most easily support them is to help them develop the knowledge that they will need to be able to use these strategies.

The Knowledge Section

The Knowledge section is usually broken down into five areas, referred to as 'domains': Numeral Identification, Number Sequence and Order, Grouping/Place Value, Basic Facts, and Written Recording. We have provided a collection of suggested activities that parents and families can use, grouped under three domains:

  • Number Identification and Order - activities to help children learn to read numbers and know the order of numbers.
  • Place Value - activities to help children learn how 10s, 100s, 1000s, tenths, hundredths, thousandths etc are used.
  • Number Facts - activities that will help children learn their addition, subtraction, multiplication and division facts.

The activities in each domain are grouped by the stage of development they are most suitable for. To choose the appropriate stage, either use the brief descriptions under the Strategy Section above, ask your child's teacher, or choose a range of activities to see which are suitable.

Click to select activities by stage and domain.

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