It is estimated that
60% of new jobs will require skills held by 20% of the workforce.
50% of the world's entrepreneurs are between the ages of 25 and 44.
75% of the fastest growing occupations require science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) related skills and knowledge.
40% of Australian jobs are at risk of being automated in the next 10-15 years.
“The priority is to ensure that the skills people develop in education are well matched to labour market needs. This includes addressing new and emerging shortages in specific areas, such as information and communications technology (ICT) and the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) skills needed for innovation and economic growth.” (Tertiary Education Strategy 2014-2019).
In a rapidly growing digital world, the technology industry is driving change. Few jobs have been untouched by today’s tech and it is important for the next generation to know how to work in a growing, changing environment and apply these skills to totally new jobs and roles. Schools need to prepare students for an unknown future, arming them with the skills to learn and adapt as tech evolves.
It’s not yet known what the workforce that todays’ school starters will enter will look like. What is known is that the jobs they do will almost certainly not have existed 30 years ago. New Zealand needs thinkers, problem solvers, and adaptable learners to ensure we remain world-leaders.
In the past, students have been taught in a way that was reliant on rote learning, tested by the student’s ability to recollect the things they have learned. This way of learning meant only 20% of students would go on to further training, eventually managing or directing the other 80% in what they should do, often in low-level roles.
The problem we face today is a need to reverse those percentages.
The modern working world demands a far more advanced learning process, as well as the ability for people to manage the complexity that comes with it. Rather than simply remembering, students must focus on innovation and ingenuity, swapping the percentages from 20:80 to 80:20.
As students finish their schooling, the majority are now expected to have high levels of competence, know how to adapt and learn as they go, with an entrepreneurial mindset. This means a very different set of learning experiences, requiring a substantial shift in how children are taught, and this is where the new Digital Technologies curriculum fits in.
The new curriculum takes this new world view and aims to help develop digitally-capable thinkers that can work in these new jobs. The goal is to enable them to learn how to design their own digital solutions and become creators of, not just users of, digital technologies. Students will be equipped with the skills to succeed in a world of unprecedented change, ensuring they can fit into future roles – whatever they may be.
While the new curriculum and the changing digital world can seem a little overwhelming, these changes are necessary to equip students with the tools and knowledge to excel in a digital first future where everything is connected back to technology. (https://www.tts.co.nz/?p=4635&utm_source=TTS+Digital+Breakfasts&utm_campaign=d770abca4e-Sth-Akld-Digital-Breakfast-Blog-Follow-Up&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_12f6129e29-d770abca4e-114017469&mc_cid=d770abca4e&mc_eid=7382d71ae8)
A Acemoglu, Daron, and David Autor, “Skills, tasks, and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings,” Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume 4, Orley Ashenfelter and David E. Card, eds., 2011.
Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo, “The race between machine and man: Implications of technology for growth, factor shares, and employment,” NBER working paper number 22252, June 2017.
Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo, “Robots and jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets,” NBER working paper number 23285, March 2017.
Agrawal, Ajay, Joshua S. Gans, and Avi Goldfarb, “Exploring the impact of artificial intelligence: Prediction vs. judgment,” working paper, December 2016.
Aguiar, Mark, and Erik Hurst, “Measuring trends in leisure: The allocation of time over five decades,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, volume 122, number 3, August 1, 2007.
Alden, Edward, Failure to adjust: How Americans got left behind in the global economy, Rowman and Littlefield, October 2016. Aldonas, Grant D., Robert Z. Lawrence, and Matthew J. Slaughter, An adjustment assistance program for American workers, Financial Services Forum white paper, July 2008.
Allen, Robert C., “Engels’ pause: Technical change, capital accumulation, and inequality in the British industrial revolution,” Explorations in Economic History, volume 46, number 4, October 2009.
Allen, Robert C., “The hand-loom weaver and the power loom: A Schumpeterian perspective,” University of Oxford, discussion papers in economic and social history, number 142, March 2016.
Anders, George, You can do anything: The surprising power of a “useless” liberal arts education, Little, Brown & Company, August 2017.
Arntz, Melanie, Terry Gregory, and Ulrich Zierahn, “The risk of automation for jobs in OECD countries; A comparative analysis,” OECD social, employment, and migration working paper, May 2016.
Autor, David H., “Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, volume 29, number 3, summer 2015.
Autor, David, and Anna Salomons, “Does productivity growth threaten employment?” working paper prepared for ECB Forum on Central Banking, June 2017.
Autor, David, et al., “Concentrating on the declining labor share,” NBER working paper number 23108, January 2017. Autor, David H., David Dorn, and Gordon H. Hanson, The China shock: Learning from labor market adjustment to large changes in trade, NBER working paper number 21906, January 2016.
Autor, David H., Frank Levy, and Richard J. Murnane, “The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, volume 18, number 4, November 2003.
B Bakhshi, Hasan, et al., The Future of Skills: Employment in 2030, Pearson and Nesta, September 2017.
Barslund, Mikkel, and Matthias Busse, Labour mobility in the EU: Addressing challenges and ensuring “fair mobility,” CEPS special report number 139, July 2016.
Beaudry, Paul, David A. Green, and Benjamin M. Sand, “The great reversal in the demand for skill and cognitive tasks,” NBER working paper number 18901, March 2013.
Bennett, Michael J., When dreams came true: The GI Bill and the making of modern America, Brassey’s Publishing Company, 1996.
Berger, Thor, Chinchih Chen, and Carl Benedikt Frey, Drivers of disruption? Estimating the Uber effect, University of Oxford, Oxford Martin School, working paper, January 23, 2017.
Bessen, James, How computer automation affects occupations: Technology, jobs, and skills, Boston University School of Law, law and economics research paper number 15-49, 2016.
Bessen, James, Learning by doing: The real connection between innovation, wages, and wealth, Yale University Press, 2015. Bloom, Nicholas, et al., Are Ideas Getting Harder to Find? NBER working paper number 23782, September 2017.
Bock, Laszlo, Work rules! Insights from inside Google that will transform how you live and lead, Twelve, 2015.
Bound, John, and Sarah Turner, “Going to war and going to college,” Journal of Labor Economics, volume 20, number 4, October 2002.
Boyd, Danah M., and Nicole B. Ellison, “Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, volume 13, number 1, October 2007. Brynjolfsson, Erik, “The Contribution of Information Technology to Consumer Welfare,” Information Systems Research, volume 7, number 3, September 1, 1996.
Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Andrew McAfee, Machine, platform, crowd: Harnessing our digital future, W. W. Norton & Company, 2017.
Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Andrew McAfee, The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies, W. W. Norton & Company, 2014.
Bughin, Jacques, Susan Lund, and Jaana Remes, “Ten new work orthodoxies for the machine age,” in The global talent competitiveness index 2017, Bruno Lanvin and Paul Evans, eds, INSEAD, 2017.
Burkhardt, Roger, and Colin Bradford, Addressing the accelerating labor market dislocation from digitization, Brookings Institution, March 2017.
Burning Glass Technologies, Crunched by the numbers: The digital skills gap in the workforce, March 2015.
Burning Glass Technologies, The digital edge: Middle-skill workers and careers, September 2017.
C Cappelli, Peter, Will college pay off? A guide to the most important financial decision you’ll ever make, PublicAffairs, 2015.
Card, David, and Alan B. Krueger, Minimum wages and employment: A case study of the fast food industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, NBER working paper number 4509, October 1993.
Carnevale, Anthony P., Jeff Strohl, Ban Cheah, and Neil Ridley, “Good jobs that pay without a BA,” Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, 2017.
Case, Anne, and Angus Deaton, “Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, volume 112, number 49, December 2015.
Chui, Michael, Katy George, and Mehdi Miremadi, “A CEO action plan for workplace automation,” McKinsey Quarterly, July 2017.
Clark, Daniel A., “The two Joes meet—Joe College, Joe Veteran: The GI Bill, college education, and postwar American culture,” History of Education Quarterly, volume 38, number 2, summer 1998.
Clark, Gregory, “The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209-2004,” Journal of Political Economy, volume 113, number 6, 2005. Cooper, Richard N., “International Aspects,” Automation and Technological Change, The American Assembly, Columbia University, 1962.
D Davenport, Thomas H., and Julia Kirby, Only humans need apply: Winners and losers in the age of smart machines, Harper Business Press, 2016.
Davis, Steven J., and John Haltiwanger, “Labor market fluidity and economic performance,” NBER working paper 20479, September 2014.
De Pleijt, Alexandra M., and Jacob L. Weisdorf, “Human capital formation from occupations: The ‘de-skilling hypothesis’ revisited,” Cliometrica, volume 11, number 1, January 2017.
DeGusta, Michael, “Are smart phones spreading faster than any technology in human history?” MIT Technology Review, May 9, 2012.
Dennis, Benjamin N., and Talan B. Iscan, “Engel vs. Baumol: Accounting for structural change using two centuries of U.S. data,” Explorations in Economic History, volume 46, number 2, April 2009.
Dittrich, Paul Jasper, Reskilling for the fourth industrial revolution. Formulating a European strategy, Jacques Delors Institut, November 2016.
E Eberstadt, Nicholas, Men without work: America’s invisible crisis, Templeton Press, 2016. Economic Innovation Group, Dynamism in retreat: Consequences for regions, markets, and workers, February 2017.
Education Week, Special report on schools and the future of work, September 2017. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L., The printing press as an agent of change, Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Engbom, Niklas, Enrica Detragiache, and Faezeh Raei, The German labor market reforms and postunemployment earnings, IMF working paper number 15/162, July 2015.
Evangelista, Rinaldo, Paolo Guerrieri, and Valentina Meliciani, “The economic impact of digital technologies in Europe,” Economics of Innovation and New Technology, volume 23, number 8, November 2014.
F Fang, Cai, Du Yang, and Wang Meiyan, Migration and labor mobility in China, UNDP, 2009. Feld, Brad, Startup communities: Building an entrepreneurial ecosystem in your city, Wiley, October 2012.
Feldmann, Horst, “Technological unemployment in industrial countries,” Journal of Evolutionary Economics, volume 23, issue 5, 2013.
Fitzpayne, Alastair, and Ethan Pollack, “Worker training tax credit: Promoting employer investments in the workforce,” Aspen Institute Future of Work Initiative, May 2017.
Ford, Henry, Today and tomorrow, 1926. Furman, Jason, “Is this time different? The opportunities and challenges of artificial intelligence,” remarks at AI Now: The Social and Economic Implications of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in the Near Term conference in New York, July 7, 2016.
G Goldin, Claudia, “America’s graduation from high school: The evolution and spread of secondary schooling in the twentieth century,” Journal of Economic History, volume 58, number 2, June 1998.
Goldin, Claudia, and Lawrence F. Katz, “Education and income in the early 20th century: Evidence from the prairies,” Journal of Economic History, volume 60, number 3, 2000.
Goldin, Claudia, and Lawrence F. Katz, The race between education and technology, Harvard University Press, 2010. Goldstein, Amy, Janesville: An American story, Simon & Schuster, 2017.
Gordon, Robert J., The rise and fall of American growth: The US standard of living since the Civil War, Princeton University Press, 2016. Graetz, Georg, and Guy Michaels, “Is modern technology responsible for jobless recoveries?” Centre for Economic Performance discussion paper, January 2017.
Graetz, Georg, and Guy Michaels, “Robots at work,” Centre for Economic Performance, discussion paper 1335, March 2015.
Gregory, Terry, Anna Salomons, and Ulrich Zierahn, “Racing with or against the machine? Evidence from Europe,” Centre for European Economic Research discussion paper number 16-053, July 2016.
Greenberg, Milton, “How the GI Bill changed higher education,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, June 18, 2004.
H Hall, Robert E., Wages, income and hours of work in the U.S. labor force, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working paper number 62, August 1970.
Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, and Gaurav Nayyar, Trouble in the making? The future of manufacturing-led development, World Bank Group, September 2017.
Hanks, Angela, Ethan Gurwitz, Brendan V. Duke and Andy Green, Workers or waste? How companies disclose—or do not disclose—human capital investments and what to do about it, Center for American Progress, June 2016.
Harris, Seth D., and Alan B. Krueger, A proposal for modernizing labor laws for twenty-first century work: The “independent worker,” The Hamilton Project at the Brookings Institution, December 2015.
Herrendorf, Berthold, Richard Rogerson, and Ákos Valentinyi, “Growth and structural transformation,” in Handbook of Economic Growth, volume 2, Philippe Aghion and Steven N. Durlauf, eds., Elsevier, 2014.
Hills, R. L., “William Lee and his knitting machine,” Journal of the Textile Institute, volume 80, number 2, July 1989. Hoffman, Reid, and Ben Casnocha, The start-up of you: Adapt to the future, invest in yourself, and transform your career, Crown Business, 2012.
Hoffman, Reid, Ben Casnocha, and Chris Yeh, The alliance: Managing talent in the networked age, Harvard Business Review Press, 2014.
Holzer, Harry, Job market polarization and U.S. worker skills: A tale of two middles, Brookings Institution, April 2015. Hounshell, David, From the American system to mass production 1800–1932: The development of manufacturing technology in the United States, JHU Press, 1985.
Huberman, Michael, and Chris Minns, “The times they are not changin’: Days and hours of work in Old and New Worlds, 1870-2000,” Explorations in Economic History, volume 44, July 2007.
International Labour Organization, The future of work we want: A global dialogue, August 2017.
International Labour Organization, World employment and social outlook, 2017.
International Monetary Fund, “Recent wage dynamics in advanced economics: Drivers and implications,” in IMF world economic outlook: Seeking sustainable growth, October 2017.
International Monetary Fund, “Understanding the downward trend in labor income shares,” in IMF world economic outlook: Gaining momentum? April 2017.
International Renewable Energy Agency, Remap: Renewable energy prospects for India, May 2017. J Jacobson, Mark Z., et al., “100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight all-sector energy roadmaps for 139 countries of the world,” Joule, volume 1, number 1, September 2017.
K Kalleberg, Arne L., “Nonstandard employment relations: Part-time, temporary and contract work,” Annual Review of Sociology, volume 26, August 2000.
Kaplan, Jerry, Humans need not apply: A guide to wealth and work in the age of artificial intelligence, Yale University Press, 2015.
Karabarbounis, Loukas, and Brent Neiman, “The global decline of the labor share,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, volume 129, number 1, February 2014.
Keynes, John Maynard, “Economic possibilities for our grandchildren,” in Essays in Persuasion, Macmillan, 1933.
Kochan, Thomas A., David Finegold, and Paul Osterman, “Who Can Fix the ‘Middle-Skills’ Gap,” Harvard Business Review, December 2012.
L Lee, Kai-fu, Keynote speech at Asia Global Institute, Hong Kong, August 2017, http://www.asiaglobalinstitute.hku. hk/en/events/global-thinkers-future-artificial-intelligence/. Li, Xia, et al., “An algorithm for longitudinal registration of PET/CT images acquired during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: preliminary results,” EJNMMI Research, December 2012.
Lin, Jeffrey, “Technological adaptation, cities, and new work,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, issue 93, May 2011. M Marx, Karl, Grundrisse: Foundations of the critique of political economy, 1858.
Mason, Julie L., et al., “Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce,” FASEB Journal, August 2016. McKinsey & Company, Digitally-enabled automation and artificial intelligence: Shaping the future of work in Europe’s digital front-runners, October 2017.
McKinsey & Company, Education to employment: Designing a system that works, December 2012.
McKinsey & Company, Shifting tides: Global economic scenarios for 2015–25, September 2015.
McKinsey Global Institute, Artificial intelligence: The next digital frontier? June 2017.
McKinsey Global Institute, Beyond the supercycle: How technology is reshaping resources, February 2017.
McKinsey Global Institute, A blueprint for addressing the global affordable housing challenge, October 2014.
McKinsey Global Institute, Bridging global infrastructure gaps, June 2016.
McKinsey Global Institute, Digital America: A tale of the haves and have-mores, December 2015.
McKinsey Global Institute, A future that works: Automation, employment, and productivity, January 2017
McKinsey Global Institute, Independent work: Choice, necessity, and the gig economy, October 2016.
McKinsey Global Institute, India’s labour market: A new emphasis on gainful employment, June 2017.
McKinsey Global Institute, A labor market that works: Connecting talent with opportunity in the digital age, June 2015.
McKinsey Global Institute, The power of parity: How advancing women’s equality can add $12 trillion to global growth, September 2015.
McKinsey Global Institute, Urban world: The global consumers to watch, April 2016.
Merisotis, Jamie, America needs talent: Attracting, educating, and deploying the 21st century workforce, Rosetta Books, 2015.
Mitchell, Tom, and Erik Brynjolfsson, “Track how technology is transforming work,” Nature, volume 544, number 7650, April 2017.
McKinsey Global Institute Jobs lost, jobs gained: Workforce transitions in a time of automation 147 Molloy, Raven, et al., Understanding declining fluidity in the US labor market, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, spring 2016.
Molloy, Raven, Christopher L. Smith, and Abigail Wozniak, Declining migration within the US: The role of the labor market, Federal Reserve Board, Finance and Economics Discussion Series, number 27, April 2014.
Moretti, Enrico, The new geography of jobs, Mariner Books, March 2013. Mortensen, Dale, and Christopher Pissarides, “Technological progress, job creation and job destruction,” Review of Economic Dynamics, volume 1, number 4, October 1998.
N National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Assessing and responding to the growth of computer science undergraduate enrollments, The National Academies Press, 2017.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Information technology and the U.S. workforce: Where are we and where do we go from here? The National Academies Press, 2017.
Negnevitsky, Michael, Artificial intelligence: A guide to intelligent systems, Addison-Wesley, 2002. O Olson, Keith W., “The G. I. Bill and higher education: Success and surprise,” American Quarterly, volume 25, number 5, December 1973.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Getting Skills Right: Skills for Jobs Indicators, July 2017.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Basic income as a policy option: Can it add up? May 2017.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Vocational education and training in Germany: Strengths, challenges, and recommendations, 2010.
P Pew Research Center, The American middle class is losing ground, December 2015.
Pissarides, Christopher, “Is new technology good or bad for jobs?” CentrePiece, volume 10, number 1, spring 2005.
Pissarides, Christopher A., and Giovanna Vallanti, Productivity growth and employment: Theory and panel estimates, Center for Economic Performance, discussion paper number 663, December 2004.
R Ramey, Valerie A., and Neville Francis, “A century of work and leisure,” NBER working paper number 12264, May 2006.
Reynolds, Jeremy, “You can’t always get the hours you want: Mismatches between actual and preferred work hours in the U.S.,” Social Forces, volume 81, number 4, June 2003. Ricardo, David, On the principles of political economy and taxation, 1817.
Rifkin, Jeremy, The end of work: The decline of the global labor force and dawn of the post-market era, Putnam, 1997.
Rodrik, Dani, “Premature deindustrialization,” Journal of Economic Growth, volume 21, number 1, 2016.
Rosenfeld, Rachel A., and Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund, “Women’s part-time work: A cross-national comparison,” European Sociological Review, volume 11, number 2, September 1995.
Rude, Fernand, La Révolte des canuts 1831-1834, La Découverte, 2001. S Schumpeter, Joseph, Capitalism, socialism, and democracy, Routledge, 1942. Shambaugh, Jay, et al., “Thirteen facts about wage growth,” The Hamilton Project at the Brookings Institution, September 2017.
Shaw, Roger M., “The GI challenge to the colleges,” Journal of Higher Education, volume 18, 1947. Shift: The Commission on Work, Workers, and Technology, Report of findings, New America Foundation and Bloomberg, 2017.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie, Unfinished business: Women men work family, Random House, 2015. The Solar Foundation, National Solar Jobs Census 2015, January 2016.
Stuart, Mark, Danat Valizade, and Ioulia Bessa, Skills and training: The union advantage, Leeds University Business School, Centre for Employment Relations Innovation and Change, research paper number 21, May 2015.
Summers, Lawrence H., “Economic possibilities for our children,” The 2013 Martin Feldstein Lecture, NBER Reporter Online, number 4, 2013.
Sundararajan, Arun, The sharing economy: The end of employment and the rise of crowdbased capitalism, MIT Press, 2016.
Susskind, Richard, and Daniel Susskind, The future of the professions: How technology will transform the work of human experts, Oxford University Press, 2015.
T Taylor, Matthew, Good work: The Taylor review of modern working practices, Report for the UK government, July 2017.
Tilly, Chris, “Reasons for continuing growth of part-time employment,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1991.
Ton, Zeynep, The good jobs strategy: How the smartest companies invest in employees to lower costs and boost profits, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.
Tyson, Laura, and Michael Spence, “Exploring the effects of technology on income and wealth inequality,” in After Piketty: The agenda for economics and inequality, Heather Boushey, J.Bradford DeLong, and Marshall Steinbaum, eds, Harvard University Press, May 2017. U US Chamber of Commerce Foundation, Workforce of today, workforce of tomorrow: The business case for high-quality childcare, June 2017.
US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Technology and the American economy: Report of the National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress, February 1966.
V Van Agtmael, Antoine, and Fred Bakker, The smartest places on Earth: Why rustbelts are the emerging hotspots of global innovation, PublicAffairs, March 2016. Vivarelli, Marco, “Technology, employment and skills: An interpretive framework,” Eurasian Business Review, volume 3, number 1, June 2013.
W Wardrip, Keith, et al., Identifying opportunity occupations in the nation’s largest metropolitan economies, special report of the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Atlanta, September 2015.
Wardrip, Keith, Stuart Andreason, and Mels de Zeeuw, Uneven opportunity: Exploring employers’ educational preferences for middle-skill jobs, Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Atlanta, January 2017.
Wei, Max, Shana Patadia, and Daniel M. Kammen, “Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?” Energy Policy, volume 38, number 2, February 2010.
White, Michael, Working hours: Assessing the potential for reduction, International Labour Organization, December 1987. World Economic Forum, Accelerating workforce reskilling for the fourth industrial revolution: An agenda for leaders to shape the future of education, gender and work, July 2017.
World Travel and Tourism Council, World economic impact, 2017.
P 09 236 1012 | F 09 236 0458 | E email@example.com